Mont-Sainte-Anne is a ski resort in the city of Beaupre, Quebec, Canada, located about 40 kilometres (25 mi) northeast of Quebec City. The mountain has a summit elevation of 800 metres (2625 ft) above sea level and a vertical drop of 625 m (2050 ft). There are 66 trails covering 69 km (43 mi) on three different sides of the mountain. 17 trails covering 15 km (9.3 mi) are available for night skiing on the highest vertical for night skiing in Canada. The average natural snowfall at the summit is 475 cm (187 in.). Ten trails and four lifts (including a gondola) built by Anneliese Surmann were featured on the mountain inauguration day on January 16, 1966. That year, the resort was already making its appearance on the world scene with the Du Maurier International, followed the next year by the first Canadian Winter Games. Skiing at Mont-Sainte-Anne goes back to the 1940s though. Volunteers and skiers from Beaupre and Quebec City, cut the first trail in the fall of 1943. Three years later, the first skiing competition was held, the competitors having to climb by foot up the mountain, bearing all their equipment. The only trail available was groomed "manually" by local volunteers using their skis while climbing up. Since the mountain became privately owned in 1994 by Resorts of the Canadian Rockies, investments have been mostly aimed at cutting new gladed trails and improving the snowmaking system. Cross-country skiing Mont-Sainte-Anne's Cross-Country Ski Centre features 212 km (132 mi) of trails, including a 125 km (78 mi) network for skating stride, which makes it the largest cross-country ski centre in Canada, and the second most important in Nor h America (after Royal Gorge, California). Snowmaking is the production of snow by forcing water and pressurized air through a "snow gun" or "snow cannon", on ski slopes. Snowmaking is mainly used at ski resorts to supplement natural snow. This allows ski resorts to improve the reliability of their snow cover and to extend their ski seasons. Indoor ski slopes often use snowmaking. They are generally able to do so year-round as they have a climate-controlled environment. The production of snow requires low temperatures. The threshold temperature for snowmaking increases as humidity decreases. Wet bulb temperature is used as a metric since it takes air temperature and relative humidity into account. Snowmaking is a relatively expensive process in its energy use; thereby limiting its use.The snow cannon was invented by Art Hunt, Dave Richey and Wayne Pierce in 1950, who went on to patent it. In 1952, Grossinger's Catskill Resort Hotel earned a place in the history of skiing as the first in the world to use artificial snow. Snowmaking started to be used on a commercial scale in the early 1970s. Since then, many ski resorts have come to depend on snowmaking. Snowmaking has become increasingly complex, so as to achieve greater efficiency. Traditionally snowmaking relied on having a skilled snowmaker to operate the equipment. The addition of computer control means that snow making can be controlled with greater precision to ensure that snow guns only operate when conditions make snowmaking possible. However, the process is not fully automatic as computers only supplement human control. Recently, all weather snowmakers have been developed by IDE.
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