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Common architectural features

A gable is the generally triangular portion of a wall between the edges of a sloping roof. The shape of the gable and how it is detailed depends on the structural system being used (which is often related to climate and availability of materials) and aesthetic concerns. Thus the type of roof enclosing the volume dictates the shape of the gable. A gable wall or gable end more commonly refers to the entire wall, including the gable and the wall below it. A crow-stepped gable in the UK A variation of the gable is a crow-stepped gable, which has a stair-step design to accomplish the sloping portion. Crow-stepped gables were used in Scotland and England as early as the seventeenth century. Examples of the crow-stepped gable can be seen at Muchalls Castle and Monboddo House, both 17th century Scottish buildings. Other early examples are found in parts of Denmark and Sweden. Gable ends of more recent buildings are often treated in the same way as the Classic pediment form. But unlike Classical structures, which operate through trabeation, the gable ends of many buildings are actually bearing-wall structures. Thus, the detailing tends to be ambiguous, misleading, and to some architects "deceitful".[why] See: John Ruskin and The Seven Lamps of Architecture. An overhang in architecture is a protruding structure which may provide protection for lower levels. Overhangs on two sides of Pennsylvania Dutch barns protect doors, windows, and other lower level structure. Overhangs on all four sides of barns is common in Swiss architecture. An Overhanging eave is the edge of a roof, protruding outwards, beyond the side of the building generally to provide weather protection. A bracket is an architectural element and structural member. They can be made of wood, stone,r metal - that projects from a wall to support or carry weight.[1] Stone-masonry brackets are known as corbels. A bracket is also defined as a decorative or weight-bearing structural element of two sides, of which form a right angle with one side against a wall and the other under a projecting surface. A sash window or hung sash window is made of one or more movable panels or "sashes" that form a frame to hold panes of glass, which are often separated from other panes (or "lights") by narrow muntins.[1] Although any window with this style of glazing is technically "a sash", the term is used almost exclusively to refer to windows where the glazed panels are opened by sliding vertically, or horizontally in a style known as a "Yorkshire light", sliding sash or sash and case (so called because the weights are concealed in a box case). The oldest surviving examples of sash windows were installed in England in the 1670s, for example at Ham House.[2] [3] The sash window is often found in Georgian and Victorian houses, and the classic arrangement has three panes across by two up on each of two sashes, giving a "six over six" panel window, although this is by no means a fixed rule. Innumerable late Victorian and Edwardian suburban houses were built in England using standard sash window units approximately 4 feet (1.2m) in width, but older, hand-made units could be of any size, as the image illustrates. It consists of an upper and lower sash that slide vertically in separate grooves in the side jambs or in full-width metal weatherstripping. This type of window provides a maximum face opening for ventilation of one-half the total window area. Each sash is provided with springs, counterweights, or compliant weatherstripping to hold it in place in any location.[4]

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